Submitted Questions

  • What is data cleaning? How can we do that?

  • after putting the watches back in the rvening before the night as the summer endsMr.X called solicitor to fix the meeting in the next morningMr.X:we will meet 11 hour after the town hall clock will take 10 secs to strike the hoursoliciter:does the townhall have 1 sec interval in consecutive strike Mr.X:yesso find out at what time they will meet


    • Oct 23rd, 2006

    Assumption: the striking time is not given, it will be taken as nil (i.e, the time between the consecutive interval is zero)The number of interval is 10, therefore the time will be 10 + 1 = 11 pm11 hours from 11 pm = 10 am


    • Oct 9th, 2006

    Now the question says that they will meet after the 11 hour after town hall clock will take 10 sec to strike so the answer willbe 1pm

  • what is loopback testing? why it is needed


    • Oct 17th, 2006

    Testing in which signals or data from a test device are output to a system or component, and results are returned to the test device unaltered for measurement or comparison.


    • Oct 7th, 2006

    A diagnostic procedure in which a signal is transmitted and returned to the sending device after passing through all or a portion of a network or circuit.Maily used for testing the Network card/cable....

  • what is the difference between Server.Transfer() and Server.Execute()?


    • Nov 17th, 2006

    Server.Transfer() = Transfer control from current page to another page like as Response.Redirect().Server.Execute()   Control goto another ,process it and come back to same page . Like  as subroutine (Sub program).

    sekhar singara

    • Oct 16th, 2006

    Server.Transfer() --> It will redirect to the respected webpage without changing the URL. Server.Execute()--> It will redirect to the respected webpage and back to the contaning p...

  • How to reverse all the no using a single link list?


    • Nov 2nd, 2006

    void reverse() { Node < T > *currentNode = head, *nextNode = currentNode->next; while(nextNode) { Node < T > *newNextNode = nextNode->next; nextNode->next = currentNode; cur...

  • Load single file to multiple targets by specific columns

    Hi, I have a COBOL file and contains 500 records of sample data.It contains 200 columns.How can I split that file in Informatica?Like 1st file 1-80 columns and 2nd file 81-200 columns.Then I want load that data using Informatica. The Target are Oracle tables. 1-80 columns: 1st target 81-200 columns:2nd target How can I split that single COBOL file data into two data files and How can I load that data...

    Sravan Kumar

    • Dec 21st, 2006


  • What is meant by web standards? ">

    What is meant by web standards?

    W3C also called as World Wide Web Consortium in collaboration with many other standard bodies has designed rules, technology and standards called web standards which are widely used by web users for having a greater stability and security of their materials placed in web. Not only is the use of web standards increase security and reliability it also simplifies the design of the system and there by...

  • What are the attributes that make up a DHTML?


    What are the attributes that make up a DHTML?

    DHTML is called as Dynamic HTML. This is used to increase the interactive ability and the visual effect of the web pages which is loaded in the browser. The main technologies that are used in DHTML are namely: HTML JavaScript CSS which is also called as Cascading Style Sheet DOM also called as Document Object Model Let us see each of these in brief. JavaScript: JavaScript...

  • What are differences between DIV and SPAN?

    DIV is used to select a block of text so that one can apply styles to it. SPAN is used to select inline text and let users to apply styles to it. The main difference between DIV and SPAN is SPAN does not do formatting by itself. Also the DIV tag is used as a paragraph break as it creates a logical division of the document in which it is applied. This is in contrast to the SPAN as SPAN simply dos the...

    Arjya Bhattacharya

    • Sep 27th, 2016

    < div > is used for denoting divisions in a paragraph in HTML.

    sanjay rana

    • Mar 29th, 2016

    The < span > element is an inline element that is often used as a container for some text When used together with CSS, the < span > element can be used to style parts of the text: The < span > elemen...

  • What are the ways of creating style sheets?

    There are various ways of creating style sheets. The main three ways are listed below namely: Embedded Style Sheets External Style Sheets Inline Styles Let us see each of these in brief. Embedded Style Sheets: Embedded Style Sheets are preset within the web page. This is very useful in making the collection of all the styles applied to the page and making them appear...


    • Oct 23rd, 2006

    1. Browser default 2. External style sheet 3. Internal style sheet (inside the tag) 4. Inline style (inside an HTML element)

  • What are the differences between cell spacing and cell padding?

    Cell Padding: Cell padding is used for formatting purpose which is used to specify the space needed between the edges of the cells and also in the cell contents. The general format of specifying cell padding is as follows: < table width="100" border="2" cellpadding="5"> The above adds 5 pixels of padding inside each cell . Cell Spacing: Cell spacing is...


    • Apr 4th, 2012

    Cell spacing:Cell spacing controls the space between table cells by defining the pixel width between them

    Cell padding:Cell padding controls the amount of space between the contents of the cell (text, images, etc) from the cell wall

    prince kumar

    • Mar 31st, 2012

    Cell spacing is not uses for future and cell padding is uses by future.

  • What is meant by cascading of styles?

    Cascading of styles is one in which an element called as child element placed with another element called as parent element inherit the styles of the parent. Cascading of styles also comes into picture when there is an overlap of styles defined. That is in other words usually among the three styles namely embedded style, external style and inline style. The general method of execution is to check for...

  • How to place a background for a single table cell?

    You can put a background for a single table cell in two ways namely: Either by using HTML Using CSS HTML Approach: In this one can make use of the td tag as follows: <td background="exforsys.gif"> text </td> But the above approach is not fully compatible or does not follow the HTML specification. CSS Approach: This approach is much easier and...

  • What is meant by iframe?

    Star Read Best Answer

    Editorial / Best Answer


    • Member Since Sep-2005 | Apr 3rd, 2011

    iframe is used for creating an inline or floating frame. As most of know frames are mainly used to structure the page or for placing a menu bar on the side and so on. But iframe is used in a different context. That is in other words &lt;iframe&gt; is used to embed or insert content on a page of padding. This is done for several reasons. Say the content may be large enough that the user may wish to place it separately and scroll through it. There are many attributes present in &lt;iframe&gt; and some of the attributes used with &lt;iframe&gt; are namely:

    Used for specifying the name of the frame.

    Used for specifying the scrolling action to be activated. Can take three values namely AUTO, YES or NO. AUTO will allow the browser to take the decision and activate scroll bar when needed YES specify scroll bar is needed and NO specifies scroll bar is not needed.

    This is used for alignment of text and the values that can be taken by it are namely LEFT, RIGHT, TOP, MIDDLE, and BOTTOM.

    Used for setting borders, around the frames if needed. A value of 1 set the border around the frame and 0 specify for no border.

    Used to specify the height of the frame and this value is mentioned in pixels.

    Used for specifying horizontal spacing around the frames.


    • Aug 12th, 2011

    Iframe means inline frame


    • Apr 3rd, 2011

    iframe is used for creating an inline or floating frame. As most of know frames are mainly used to structure the page or for placing a menu bar on the side and so on. But iframe is used in a differ...

  • What are the methods of validating whether the form is secure?

    There are numerous methods for ensuring the security of a form. Some of them are mentioned below namely: Check the form action attribute: Make a check on the form action attribute. That is in other words the form action attribute must start with https:// for ensuring the secure site. . Check the Java Routine: Make a check on the Java routine to find out whether formname.action="the...

  • What is the need for CSS?

    CSS is called as Cascading Style Sheets. This is used to enhance the features of web pages like formatting styles say bold, font size and so on and there by increase the visual appearance of web pages. These are specified inside an HTML tag. The use of CSS reduces time and enhances the web page design. With CSS it is possible to define layout of HTML documents like font, color, margin, line, height,...

    sushi mathew chacko

    • Mar 28th, 2007

    If we using CSS for styling  a Site insted of Instyle , in a single edit we can change the look and feel of the site. if our  pages number is  more CSS is necessary

  • What are the components of a client/server computing? ">

    What are the components of a client/server computing?

    The Client/Server computing has three components in it namely: Client Server Network Let us see the functions of each. Server: This is one that manages data or information in database. It also takes the role of coordination or assigning process when multiple clients functions which is very common in client/server computing technology. Client: This is the application...

  • What are the commands that come in the category of DML in SQL?

    DML refers to Data Manipulation Statements. That is used for accessing and modifying values or data present in the database. The commands that come in the category of DML in SQL INSERT SELECT DELETE UPDATE INSERT: This command is used to insert rows into the table. SYNTAX: INSERT INTO tablename VALUES (value,value,….); SELECT: This is used to select...

  • What is meant by deadlock in database?

    Transaction is unit of work done. So a database management system will have number of transactions. There may be situations when two or more transactions are put into wait state simultaneously .In this position each would be waiting for the other transaction to get released. Suppose we have two transactions one and two both executing simultaneously. In transaction numbered one we update student table...

    Chittaranjan Kotian

    • May 16th, 2012

    Two Oracle Sessions attempting to obtain a lock on a rows that is being locked by each other. For example Session A has locked a row for update in a transaction. Session B is trying to obtain a lock o...


    • Apr 22nd, 2012

    It is absolutely can read data simultaneously but you cant write data can write data one at a time only...

  • What are triggers in database? ">

    What are triggers in database?

    The programmer may like the database o take some action when a database event occurs. In order to achieve the above purpose triggers are defined. The trigger body refers to the code written within the trigger which gets fired and executed when the related database event associated with the trigger occurs. On this situation one may have the question what is the event on the happening of which triggers...

  • What is the difference between ROUND and TRUNC function in SQL? ">

    What is the difference between ROUND and TRUNC function in SQL?

    Both TRUC and ROUND are single value functions. TRUNC: TRUNC function truncates that is in other words cuts off to the digits specified. The general syntax of TRUNC function is: TRUNC(number, precision); For instance: Suppose the value of salary in employee table for ename= ’Exforsys’ is 55.666 Then Select TRUNC(salary,2) from employee where ename=’Exforsys’;...

    s.siva karthik

    • Sep 29th, 2011

    SQL> select ceil(14.1) ,round(14.1),ceil(14.01),round(14.4),trunc(14.6) from dual; CEIL(14.1) ROUND(14.1) CEIL(14.01) ROUND(14.4) TRUNC(14.6) ---------- ----------- ----------- ...


    • Sep 10th, 2011

    Round function will increase the value by 1 if decimal value is greater than or equal to 5 else it will return same integer value without decimal ex. select round(8.34) from dual; will return 8; sel...

  • What is the difference between Rollback, Commit and Savepoint is SQL?


    What is the difference between Rollback, Commit and Savepoint is SQL?

    All these statements fall in the category of Transaction Control Statements. Rollback: This is used for undoing the work done in the current transaction. This command also releases the locks if any hold by the current transaction. The command used in SQL for this is simply: ROLLBACK; Savepoint: This is used for identifying a point in the transaction to which a programmer can later roll...

  • What is Partitioning concept and to how to achieve this using MYSQL? ">

    What is Partitioning concept and to how to achieve this using MYSQL?

    One of the important concepts in database management is Partitioning. Partitioning is the concept by which storage of tables are pre-organized to attain efficiency. That is in other words the rows present in a table are stored across different disks or fields to achieve optimization and performance improvement. How to achieve this concept in MYSQL Database statements generally get divided into...

  • What is meant by Group Functions in SQL?


    What is meant by Group Functions in SQL?

    There are functions which return a value for each single row selected. Example of such functions are Arithmetic functions like ABS(column name) in SQL. But in contrast group functions are one in which summary or result of the group of rows is got. For example in an entity DEPARTMENT there may be instance in which the programmer may like to get the average salary of a particular department say d1. This...

  • How does the evolution of database systems happened?">

    How does the evolution of database systems happened?

    The evolution of database systems is as follows File Management System Hierarchical database System Network Database System Relational Database System File Management System: The file management system also called as FMS in short is one in which all data is stored on a single large file. The main disadvantage in this system is searching a record or data takes a long time....

  • What is the difference between entity and attribute?

    To put the definition of an entity is an entity is a single person, place, or thing about which data can be stored. That is in other words for example when one wants to store information about STUDENT then it has details like studentno, student name, address for communication, phone number, class of the student and so on. All of these details together is placed in the entity or table called as STUDENT....


    • Oct 31st, 2017

    Set of attribute is called entity


    • Aug 18th, 2017

    Difference between entity and attributes
    entity is the table name
    attribute is the column name of the table

  • What is SQL injection?

    SQL injection is one of the security abuse in which the person makes use of SQL in other words Structured Query Language in a web form in order to have access to data and thereby make changes to the data. That is on a web application the user has to be validated with username and password and only if it matches they must gain access to the database. This is the main security action that has to be followed...

  • What is a junction table and how is it used in Microsoft Access?

    A junction record is one which allows many to many relationship between the two owner records. One of the scenario in which junction table plays a role in Microsoft Access is while creating or defining many to many relationship. Many to Many relationships between two entities are one in which one row or record of a table can relate to many records in other table and also vice-versa for the other table....

  • What is the use of COUNT with DISTINCT option?

    COUNT is a group function. That is which gives a result by summarizing multiple rows. All group value function will have the usage of DISTINCT or ALL option and so is the COUNT which uses the DISTINCT option. DISTINCT option is used to enforce uniqueness and this combined with COUNT is used to count only unique mentioned value. To understand this let us see an example. Consider a table exforsys which...

  • What is a view?

    A view is nothing but a window of an existing table by which one can view and can also change the values in tables. The main point aspect of view is views have no storage space. For this reason views are also called as virtual tables. Thus in other words a view is a database object that gives a logical representation of one or more database tables. As we have seen above views have no data for themselves...

  • Why is performance tuning a vital aspect in Oracle?

    Tuning is one of the main function or job of a database administrator or DBA in short. This is because oracle is a relational database management system which is tunable and thus the database can be monitored and therefore appropriate measures and steps can be taken at appropriate times to increase the performance of the system. There are many reasons for performing the performance tuning in oracle....

  • What is DECODE function used for?

    DECODE is used to decode a CHAR or VARCHAR2 or NUMBER into any of several different character strings or numbers based on value. That is DECODE does a value-by-value substitution. For every value that is given in the DECODE function it makes an if then check and matches the value. The general format of DECODE function is given below: DECODE(value,if1,then1,if2,then2,……,else) In...

  • What is the use of truncate command?

    Truncate command will delete all records and the most important thing to make note of truncate command is since truncate command cannot be rolled back one must make sure to take proper backup of table data before performing the truncate command. Truncate command is thus used to remove all rows from either a table or a cluster. If one wants to use the truncate command in a cluster they can use it only...

  • What are the differences between stored procedures and triggers?

    Stored procedures are compiled collection of programs or SQL statements that live in the database. A stored procedure can access and modify data present in many tables. Also a stored procedure is not associated with any particular database object. But triggers are event-driven special procedures which are attached to a specific database object say a table. Stored procedures are not automatically run...

    Amol Bawane

    • Nov 15th, 2007

    The basic difference between stored procedure and trigger is stored procedure can call explicitly, but trigger cannot call explicitly.Genarally trigger are used for Audit and trail. What should be the...

  • What are the differences between physical and logical data model?

    The main important aspect is physical data model is created after logical data model. For designing a logical data model one need not have through knowledge in any specific RDBMS like oracle, Informix and so on. This is because logical data model is created after having through study of the business entities which would be involved in the application. The same can be represented by using E-R diagram...

  • What is codd’s rules?

    E.codd designed 12 rules that stated rules for database to be relational. These rules were named as codd’s rules. The rules are given below: 1. The Information Rule: For a database to be relational all information is represented as data values in tables. 2. The Rule of Guaranteed Access: The data represented in table by using table name, column name and primary key value defined for that table....

  • How does one translate characters in UNIX operating system?

    This is done by using the tr command in UNIX operating system. This command in UNIX is used for translating characters from standard input. The general syntax of this command is: tr character_from character_to That is in above character_from and character_to can take one or more single characters. The character_from denotes the input character and whatever is found in this character_from is...

  • What is the use of crontab command in Linux Operating system?

    Crontab is a very useful command used for scheduling purpose. If a person working inn Linux operating system wishes to schedule to run later they can achieve this by using the crontab command. Thus it is possible that each user working in the Linux operating system can define their own crontab. There are many options available with this crontab command. Some of them are namely: Crontab with –u...

    Bhagavan Reddy

    • Apr 19th, 2007

    Hi,Please explain clealy crontab command.And i want to run one shell script every 3 hours, and it should start 1 A.M and end should be 10 P.M.How to use crontab command for above requirement...RegardsBhagavan Reddy.

  • What is the difference between the commands sleep, wait and killall?

    sleep: This command is used in UNIX operating system to suspend execution of the system for the specified time limit mentioned in it as parameter. The general format of sleep command is sleep no_of_seconds The sleep suspends the execution of the shell in UNIX operating system for the no_of seconds specified. For instance sleep 5 The above suspend the execution of the shell in...

    sudhir deshmukh

    • Mar 8th, 2007

    sleep is a Unix command line program that suspends program execution for a specified period of time.Wait The wait function suspends execution of the current process until a child has exited, or until ...

  • What is the use of make program in UNIX?

    The make program plays a very important role in a multiprogramming operating system namely UNIX. When there is more than one file and when changes are made to the files make program keeps track automatically of the changes made to these files and recompile them as and when needed automatically. The make program takes as its input any file name or in general a file named as makefile which has in it...

  • What is meant by Intermachine communication?

    Intermachine communication is the communication between two machines. With respect to the context of UNIX operating system there are many commands available for achieving this intermachine communication. Some of them are listed below namely: uucp: This command is used for transferring of files between UNIX machines. There are many options available in this command to name one of which is uucp with...

  • Where is the semaphore stored in UNIX operating system?

    Before going into the storage of semaphore it is first vital to know about semaphores. A semaphore is nothing but a term used in UNIX for a variable which acts as a counter. So the next question that comes in mind is what for we need this variable. It’s so simple. The reason is explained below. For instance there may be times when two processes try to access the same file simultaneously. In...


    • Sep 27th, 2006

    Semaphore stored inside the kernel

  • What is meant by shell layer manager?

    Shell layer manager is also called as shl in short. This utility is used for running number of scripts simultaneously at the same time in a single terminal. This utility plays a very important role in UNIX operating system because as we all know UNIX is a multi-programming operating system. So in other words there many be many instances or occurrences in which the users in the UNIX operating system...


    • Jan 27th, 2007

    It means same for dos external commands

  • What is meant by the process of pipeline?

    Just as the name depicts pipeline is the process in which when a pipe is set between two commands then the standard output from the first command is passed through the pipe specified to the second command and thus acts as an input to the second command. In other words the standard output of the first command is pipelined as standard input to the second command. This is done by using the symbol for...

  • What happens when a compress command is used in UNIX system?

    compress command is used for compressing a file that is for making the file size compact so that it becomes small. When a compress command is used in UNIX all the file attributes like the owner of the file and other things remain same except the file size is compressed and the extension of the file becomes .ZThe general syntax for compressing file iscompress filenameFor instance if one like to compress...

  • Which Server Stats are essentially monitored during a Performance test of a Web Application?


    • Dec 19th, 2009

    Here are a few things that can be monitored on web servers for each application:MEMORY1) Pages per second2) Available bytes3) Committed bytes4) Pool nonpaged bytesPROCESSOR1) Percent of processor...

  • Why is assigning to string as given below not allowed?

    Consider the code:main() { char s[8] = “Exforsys”; } The above code is not allowed in string handling concept. This is because strings are represented in C programming language as arrays and therefore assigning as above arrays is not allowed.One can make use of strcpy() which is a string handling function present in string.h header file for this purpose. So the above code can be written as#include...

    Abhi Phirke

    • Nov 19th, 2007

    main(){char a[10]={'e','x','f','o','r','y','s', ''};}Aint this more correct? We are talking about strings here...! 

  • ">

    What happens when the following code is executed? #include <stdio.h> main(){ char *s; if (s == "10") { printf("string matches"); } }

    In the above code the operator == is used to compare the value of string. But this is not allowed. This is because in C program string is represented as array of characters. So the operate like comparison, assignment and so on cannot be used to manipulate array as whole. So the above code does not work. In order to achieve the string comparison instead of using == C programmers must use function named...

    Raman Katwal

    • Jun 29th, 2007

    I agree with you ... It will not generate any kind of output due to the address problem in case of 32 bit machine.

  • What string function is used to convert a string into long value?

    This is done by using the function named as atol() . This function atol() is present in the header file named as <stdlib.h>. So when programmers use this function they must include the header file by the statement #include <stdlib.h> The syntax for this function is given by long atol( const char *s) Here the function atol() converts the string pointed by s into long and the...

  • How to convert a string into an integer in C program?

    This is done by using the function named as atoi(). This function atoi() is present in the header file named as <stdlib.h>. So when programmers use this function they must include the header file by the statement #include <stdlib.h> The syntax for this function is given by int atoi( const char *s) Here the function atoi() converts the string pointed by s into integer and the...


    • Sep 1st, 2006

    Using atoi()

  • What is the string handling functions present in header file <string.h>?

    There are number of string handling functions present in string.h. In other words if a programmer uses any of the function present in string.h then they must include the header file as #include <string.h> Some of the functions present in <string.h> are given below: strcat() - This function present in string.h is used to con concatenate two strings. strcmp() – This function...


    • Jan 10th, 2007

    the string handling functions present in are strcmp()strcpy()strconcat()strlen()strev()

  • What happens when we try to change the value of base address of the string?

    The base address of the sting takes a special place in the context of strings. This is because suing this base address only the string gets identified. In other words the base address therefore takes the position of constant. As we all know it is not possible to change the value of constants so is the base address. Let us see this concept with the help of a small program. For instance consider the...

  • #include <stdion.h>
    #include <string.h>
    static char a[] = “Exforsys”
    printf(“%d”, *(a+ strlen(a)));


    What is the output of the following program? #include <stdion.h> #include <string.h> main() { static char a[] = “Exforsys” printf(“%d”, *(a+ strlen(a))); }

    The immediate answer one might give seeing the program would be 8 which is the length of the string “Exforsys”. But the output is not that. The wondering what would be the output. It is 0. Interesting at the same time strange to see the output is it not? The output is so because the strlen() function give the length of the string and in this case gives the length of “Exforsys”...

  • How to convert a character string to a time value?

    There is a function available in C for converting a character string to a time value. The function is strptime(). This function is not present in string.h but the prototypes of this function is present in time.h and so one has to include <time.h> when using this function strptime(). The syntax of theis functions is given below: char * strptime(const char *s,const char *f, struct tm *t); The...

  • #include <string.h>
    char str[ ] = "Exforsys" ;
    strcat ( str, '!' ) ;


    What will happen with the following code? #include <string.h> main() { char str[ ] = "Exforsys" ; strcat ( str, '!' ) ; }

    On the outset users might see the command strcat and think that the string str having value “Exforsys” would get concatenated with ‘!’. But this will not happen Surprised to hear this!!!!! But there is an interesting fact to know in the above code. The string handling function strcat() concatenate only string and does not concatenate characters. In other words string which...


    • Aug 30th, 2007

    It will generate an error message that  " invalid use of function"

  • How to determine different positions of substrings within a string in C?

    There are numerous functions available in C to achieve the purpose of finding different positions of a substring with a string. strstr(): To obtain the first occurrence of substring in a string the function used is strstr(). The syntax for this function is char *strstr( const char *str1, const char *str2 ); The header file that must be included while using this function strstr() is <string.h>...


    • Oct 12th, 2006

    While traversing along a string find whether the current character is a blank space or not.if so count the position

  • What is the return value from printf() function?

    printf function always returns the number of characters printed by the printf function. Let us see this in brief with an example: main() { int a=10; printf(“%d,printf(“%d %d %d,a,a,a)); } In this above program the inner printf is first called which prints three times the value of a, with space between each value namely 10 10 10. So 5 characters namely 3 value of a namely...


    • Jul 12th, 2011

    1. #include<stdio.h>
    2. int main()
    3. {
    4. int a=10;
    5. printf("%d",printf("%d%d%d",a,a,a));
    6. printf("/n");
    7. printf("%d",printf("%d %d %d",a,a,a));
    8. return 0;
    9. }
    anwer would be 1010106 10 10 108

  • Why it is that the left hand side of assignment operator must have a variable?

    It so because only a variable can have operation performed in it. To explain this concept more briefly let us see an example. Consider the following program: main() { int a=10; int b; b=sample(++a++); } sample(c) int c; { printf(“%d”,c); } The above program will not work and would give a error message as LValue Required. This is because of the statement sample(++a++). In...

  • What is the importance of header files?

    The main role of header file is it is used to share information among various files. To put it brief, if we have several functions say 4 functions named as f1, f2, f3, f4 placed in file say sample.c and if all the functions want to get accessed each other all must be placed in the same file sample.c.  In other words if there is a function say f5 placed in another file say example.c and...


    • Oct 12th, 2006

    We r using numerous predefined c functions like,printfsqrtscanfgetchmallocFILENULLif strcmp etc, these functions coding,prototype,execution are defined and categorized and stored in different files while we user while programing we use this functions which makes our programming very easy.

  • What is difference between call by value and call by reference in function?

    The arguments passed to function can be of two types namely 1. Values passed 2. Address passed The first type refers to call by value and the second type refers to call by reference. For instance consider program1 main() { int x=50, y=70; interchange(x,y); printf(“x=%d y=%d”,x,y); } interchange(x1,y1) int x1,y1; { int z1; z1=x1; x1=y1; y1=z1; printf(“x1=%d...

  • How does the function call within function get evaluated?

    Suppose we have more than one function called finite number of times then the function gets evaluated from inside out. Let us see this concept with an example. For instance consider a function sample called within it 4 times as given in program below: main() { int a=50; a=sample(a=sample(a=sample(a=sample(a)))); printf(“%d”,a); } sample(a1) int a1; { a1= a1+10; return(a1);...

  • How is the main() function declared?

    The declaration of main can be done as int main() One more declaration that can be taken by main is command line arguments form namely int main(int argc, char *argv[]) Or This can also be written as int main(argc, argv) int argc; char *argv[]; One of the important point to note is it is not possible for one to declare the main() as void. This is because the function main() returns...

  • How to call C header that is not provided generally by system in C++?

    This can be done using extern C Syntax of extern C is: extern "C" <function declaration> That is for calling C functions from C++ we can write as extern "C" { <function declaration> <function declaration> ... <function declaration> } That is it if we want to include a header file say sample.h in C++ code it is done by declaring it...

  • What is the default return value of a function?

    The default returns value from a function in int. In other words generally unless explicitly specified the default return value by compiler would be integer value from function. So when a programmer wants other than integer values to be returned from function then it is essential that the programmer takes some steps in doing this namely: 1. Mention eth return type in the calling function and 2....

  • What happens when a variable is not initialized in main function?

    When a variable is not initialized in main function it contains garbage value. This can be well seen from the example below main() { int x; printf( “%d”,x); z= sample() } sample() { printf(“Testing program”); } Output is x=80 Testing program The above program prints a garbage value and the output testing program .This is because the variable...


    • Oct 13th, 2006

    As the above illustrates that if we are not intializint the varaible we get garbarge value.This is because when you define a variable the compiler calls the os then os allocates the required memory (w...

  • What happens when a variable is not declared in function definition?

    Generally in C program the function definition and calling takes the form as given below: main() { int x,y,z; z=sample(x,y); printf(“%d”,z); } sample(x1,y1) int x1,y1; { int z1; z1= x1 - y1; return(z1); } Here what happens is the values x, y gets passed to x1,y1 and the value z1 is calculated in sample function and the value z1 is returned which is got in...

  • What are the limitations with switch statement?

    Switch statement is a powerful statement used to handle many alternatives and provides good presentation for C program. But there are some limitations with switch statement which are given below: Logical operators cannot be used with switch statement. For instance case k>=20: is not allowed Switch case variables can have only int and char data type. So float or no data type is allowed. For...

    saurav kant prasad

    • Sep 2nd, 2006


  • What are the Format Specifiers used with printf?

    There are several format specifiers available in printf. The format specifier used varies depending on the data type used for printing. The given below are some of the format specifiers used with printf in C program. For integer data type the format specifier used with printf is %d or %i For float data type the format specifier used with printf is %f For double data type the format...


    • Oct 12th, 2006

    %nxn-may me numericals to specify the alignment of the data it may be +ive or -ive.x-is datatype type .and other formatters lise new line,tab,formfeed,alertetc.

  • How to develop, compile and run a C program

    The steps involved in building a C program are: 1. First program is created by using any text editor and the file is stored with extension as .c 2. Next the program is compiled. There are many compilers available say GNU C compiler called as gcc, Sun compiler, Borland compiler popular with PC system and so on. There are lots of options for compiling. Generally the compilation is done as below cc...

  • How to define command line arguments

    The main functions can have in it arguments passed which are called as command line arguments. The command line arguments are two in number which are namely: Argument count denoted by argc and Argument vector denoted by argv The argc is an integer variable which denotes the number of parameters passed and argv is pointer to array of character strings. The syntax is as follows: main( int...


    • Nov 24th, 2007

    It should defined globally in Cmain(int argc , char *argv[]){

  • How is C++ a higher level of C?

    C++ is an improved and higher level of C with more features and abilities built in it. Apart from the regular features of C the other features which C++ possess which makes it a higher level of C are classes, objects, constructors and destructors, virtual functions, concept of polymorphism, abstract classes, able to provide access levels like public, private and protected for members, friend functions,...


    • Oct 13th, 2006

    c++ is higher than C in ,many ways.but to keep it simple : with C it diffcult to represnt the real world whereas with c++ we can represent real eworld things.Examples: in c++ we have objests that repe...


    • Sep 27th, 2006

    Wt mean by QA  how it defines and purposes and features

  • How does the exit () and return () differ

    exit () is used to exit the program as a whole. In other words it returns control to the operating system. After exit () all memory and temporary storage areas are all flushed out and control goes out of program. In contrast the return statement is used to return from a function and return control to the calling function. Also in a program there can be only one exit () statement but a function...


    • May 23rd, 2007

    Exit() will free up resources associated with process.


    • Feb 3rd, 2007

    The exit() routine simply terminates the program and returns control to OS (by default)the return statement simply exits the currently executing procedure block and the control goes back to the caller function

  • What is Nonlocal jump and unconditional Jump?

    longjmp() and setjmp() functions implement a nonlocal jump of program execution."longjmp" jumps to a program state previously recorded by "setjmp". Both longjmp() and setjmp() functions must have the header file given below included. #include <setjmp.h> When your program calls setjmp(), the current state of the program is saved in a structure of type jmp_buf which is declared...

  • What is the difference between printf and sprintf?

    sprintf: This Writes formatted data to a character string in memory instead of stdout Syntax of sprintf is: #include <stdio.h> int sprintf (char *string, const char *format [,item [,item]...]); Here String refers to the pointer to a buffer in memory where the data is to be written. Format refers to pointer to a character string defining the format. Each item is a variable or expression...


    • Feb 3rd, 2007

    The printf() funkshun is supposed to print the output to stdout here the sprintf() function we store the formatted o/p on a string buffer.

  • Why to avoid goto in C

    C has GOTO statement but one must ensure not to use too much of goto statement in their program because its functionality is limited and it is only recommended as a last resort if structured solutions are much more complicated. First let us see what the goto statement does, its syntax and functionality. The goto is a unconditional branching statement used to transfer control of the program from one...

  • How to assign values during declaration of variables

    Declaring variables tells the compiler the data type the variable is assigned and no storage area is allocated during this stage. It is possible to assign values during declaration itself. In order to see how this can be done let us see an example. Consider the following program: main() { int a= 50 , b= 18 % 5 ; printf( “a=%d b=%d”,a,b); } The above program runs perfectly good...

  • }">

    What is the output of the following program?main() { int i=-1,j=-1,k=0,l=2,m; m=i++ && j++ && k++ | | l++; printf("%d %d %d %d %d",i,j,k,l,m); }

    The output is 0 0 1 3 1This is as followsFirst the expression gets reduced asm = -1 && -1 && 0 || 2This is because ++ gets the higher precedence and being postfix operator it is first applied to expression and then only incremented. Now in this Logical AND gets higher precedence over Logical OR and the associativity or the order in which Logical AND as well as Logical OR gets executed is left to rightSo...


    • May 15th, 2007

    && and ||, they are called logical operator which takes two operands. The result of this operator will be either zero or one  (i.e any non-zero value is equal to one)so in this case0 || 2 nothing but  zero || non-zero  = one

  • What is sizeof operator?

    sizeof will return the number of bytes reserved for a variable or data type. The sizeof operator is a compile-time operator that returns an integer value. In other words since it is a compile time operator When the programmer uses the sizeof operator in a expression then the operator do not get compiled into executable code in the expression.Syntax of this operator issizeof (type-name)For instance...

  • How Typecasting plays an important role in C

    C allows programmers to do typecasting by placing the type name in parentheses and placing this in front of the value programmers want to change. For instance main() { float a; a = (float)5 / 3; } gives result as 1.666666 . This is because the integer 5 is converted to floating point value before division and the operation between float and integer results in float. Thus from the above...


    • Jun 7th, 2007

    This type casting can used to maintain the accuracy and precision.For example a float can be converted to double there by the accuracy increases.This is used in scientific calculation

  • What is the difference between defining and declaring a variable?

    The basic types of variable in C are namely char, int, double and float. First the variables have to be declared. This is done as follows:First any of the data type defined above must be mentioned and this is followed by the name of the variable. For instance if wants to declare a variable v1 of type char it is done as followschar v1;While declaring a variable what happens is the data type is described...


    • Jul 13th, 2007

    When a variable is declared, a memory is allocated for that variable acoording to the type of variable..And during a variable definition, a value is defined to that variable and the value gets stored in the corresponding memory location..

  • Define Operator, Operand, and Expression in 'C'?

    Operators are symbols which take one or more operands or expressions and perform arithmetic or logical computations. Broadly speaking the types of operators available in C are as follows:ArithmeticAssignmentLogical/relationalBitwiseThese have operators under each as follows namely:Arithmetic operators present in C are+   For performing Addition -   For performing Subtraction...


    • Jul 21st, 2007

    Statement a=b+c have 3 operands(a,b,c) and 2 operators(+, =).

  • How does the prefix and postfix operator on expression?

    The operators present in prefix and postfix are prefix increment operator denoted by ++ prefix decrement operator denoted by -- postfix increment operator postfix decrement operator The difference between the two is that in the postfix notation, the operator appears after postfix-expression, whereas in the prefix notation, the operator appears before expression that is for example x--;...

  • What is the functionality and restrictions of Modulus Operator?

    When a division is performed the remainder of the operation is given by modulus operator. The modulus operator is denoted in c by symbol %.Say for instance we have two integer values x and y and then the operation x % y called as x modulus y gives the result as (x- (x / y) * y). Say if x=18 and y =5 the x % y gives value as (18- (18 / 5) * 5) which gives (18-15) which results in 3 in other words the...

  • How to swap without third variable?

    A variable is a named location in memory that is used to store data which can be modified in a program. Let us see how to swap two variables without using third variable. This can be done in number of namely By using arithmetic operators By using Bitwise operators By using Pointers Concept and so on Let us see one of the method namely by using arithmetic operators. Consider 2 variables...

    Ramya Shetty

    • Nov 11th, 2015

    A and b are two variables ; Following code will swap both number and string inputs

    a = Inputbox("Enter a")
    b = Inputbox("Enter b")

    a = a + b

    b = left(a,(instr(a,b)-1))
    a = Right(a,(len(a)-len(b)))

    msgbox "b ="&b
    msgbox "a = "&a

  • What is precedence of operators?

    When number of operators occurs in an expression the operator which is to be evaluated first is judged by applying priority of operators. The arithmetic operators available in C are+ used for Addition-  used for Subtraction* used for Multiplication/ used for Division% used for Modulus operation. In other words operator used to remainder after division  When all this is used in an expression in a C...

    chandan kumar jena

    • Sep 1st, 2007

    From my point of view, It is nothing but the sequence of operation that means which operator should insert into the stack first. According to the compiler design principle they the parser first choose the operators and manipulate it with the specified operand.

  • How does a conversion occur in C?

    The data types for numerical operations used in C are integer, float. So it is important to know how conversions occur between these two data types in numerical operations.Some of the facts about conversions are given below:Integer having arithmetic operation with Integer gives Integer value  Float having arithmetic operation with Float gives Float  Integer having arithmetic operation...

    phani kumar

    • Oct 30th, 2006

    y/2 gives 5/2 and an integer having arithmetic operation with integer gives integer as result as this gives 2 as result and not 2.5  x/5 gives 5.5/5 in this a float having arithmetic operation wi...

  • MessageBox class In VB.NET 2005

    Message boxes are often used objects. They are derived form Form Class, displayed modally and used to take user’s acknowledgement and also inform the user or alert the user of any thing that needs to be informed or alerted. You cannot create a new instance of the System.Windows.Forms.MessageBox class. To display a message box, call the static method System.Windows.Forms.MessageBox.Show. The...


    • Oct 11th, 2007

    Instead of writing If textBox1.Text = "" Then(which usually gives an error if ur textbox is set to receive numbers)you can writeIf textBox1.Text = String.Empty Then

  • Explain about Assemblies, native assemblies, and the Global Assembly Cache ">

    Explain about Assemblies, native assemblies, and the Global Assembly Cache

    The primary unit of deployment is the assembly. The assembly is used by the .NET CLR as the smallest unit of deployment; version control; security; type grouping and code reuse. An assembly will consist of a manifest and one or more modules or files. It can be defined as a logical DLL that contains a manifest, type metadata, MSIL and resources. Assemblies can be application private or shared. Private...

  • How do you Implement Class Library Object

    Classical Object Oriented Concepts explain a class as a cookie cutter. A class allows you to create objects of the class. As a programmer you define a class with data fields, properties, methods and events. Then you can create objects based on that class that have state (fields, properties) and behavior (methods, events). A class can be considered as a specification of how the object of the class should...

  • Explain about .NET Framework Class Librarykk">

    Explain about .NET Framework Class Librarykk

    The .NET framework class library, as the name suggests, is a library of classes, interfaces and value types. The applications, components and controls for applications are built on this framework and it provides the developer the access to the system functionality. In other words, the classes and structures can be leveraged as base building blocks for application development. These classes are often...

  • What are the different frameworks available In AJAX?


    • Aug 10th, 2006

    There are so many - a good question  as anyone who starts developing with ajax invariably has to look at some of the frameworks

    Amit Sharma

    • Apr 28th, 2006

    Prototype.JS Framework is available with detailed documentation, its very easy to handle AJAX and JavaScript, Introduce $ concept its very simple, For Ajax specially u don't need to check cross broswer, OPen, Close and error handling through traditional AJAX.

  • Tech Tutorials and Articles - Get paid $5 each

    Hello All,  We are looking for Tech related articles and tutorials for our sites.  If you are interested in writing them in your free time, please send them using contact link from the site.Articles and tutorials must be original and not copied from any books or websites.  We run copyscrape on the article to find it's originality.  After the article is approved, you can choose the...


    • Apr 9th, 2006

    Hello Manu,  We had sent mail to you few weeks ago.. not sure if it's ended in SPAM box.  We did not get any articles.. where did you submit.... ?.  Please reply to the email I will be sending. today.  Thanks Admin

  • [Contribution Contest Jan 2006] Get $50 Paypal Prize Money or $50 Amazon Gift Certificate

    Contest RulesStart Date : Jan 1st 2006End Date : Jan 31st 20061. You must be a member of GeekInterview. This is very important to track your score.2. Each new question or comments added will be counted towards your contribution score after they are approved by admin. 3. You comment or questions should not be duplicates which are alredy on the site. 4. Winner will be announced on Feb 1st 2006. At the...

  • [Contribution Contest Dec 2005] Get $20 Paypal Prize Money

    Contest RulesStart Date : Dec 10th 2005 End Date : Dec 31st 20051. You must be a member of GeekInterview. This is very important to track your score.2. Each new question or comments added will be counted towards your contribution score after they are approved by admin. 3. You comment or questions should not be duplicates which are alredy on the site. 4. Winner will be announced on Jan 1st 2006. At...