What is physical significance of chemical potential & fugacity?

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  • Dec 30th, 2007

Like there is gravitational potential or electrostatic potential there is chemical potential. It is basically change in the internal energy of the system by addition of a new particle at constant volume and entropy. In terms of free energy, its the change in Gibbs free energy  of a system by addition of a particle  at constant temperature and pressure. So basically it tells you about the reactivity of a component in a phase. Transfer of molecule will always occur from high potential to low potential.
Fugacity is escapability that is tendency of a particle to prefer one phase over other. The particle will be present in the phase having low fugacity (where the escapability is least). In terms of chemical potential it is the measure of how much the chemical potential of a component in a phase differs from the chemical potential in standard state, due to change in Pressure or mol fr of component. Fugacity is analogous to partial pressure when applying thermodynamics to any non ideal system for any component. For pure ideal gases fugacity --> partial pressure.  


  • Apr 10th, 2009

Chemical potential is the main driving force for any mass transfer operation to be occured and is very closely related with concentration of that corresponding species therefore we generally take concentration term instead of chemical potential while for very high pressures we generally calculate fugacities instead of pressures.

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Sumaia afroz mim

  • Nov 26th, 2013

1.To calculate free energy.
2.chemical potential is 1 type of force to turn a reaction in equilibrium.
3.chemical potential is comparable to escaping tendency or fugacity,its means the tendency of reaction flow to ewuilibrium point.
4.If chemical potential is high escaping tendency will high.

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Chemical Potential: Change in Gibbs free energy at const T &P
Fugacity: How much chemical potential of a phase differ from its standard state and its equal to partial pressure in case of ideal gas.

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