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Thread: Networking Questions

  1. #61
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    Re: Networking Questions

    how much mcse server international paper is important?


  2. #62
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    Smile Re: Networking Questions

    Quote Originally Posted by mittra_ashish View Post
    hi, here are few questions?
    1. What is ftp & udp?
    2. What is the difference between switch & router?
    3. As i know that dhcp works under a protocol in the name of "dora". Can anyone explain me about "dora"?
    4. Please explain me about the concept of "kerboros" protocol & when i works?
    1. Ftp- file transfer protocol for exchanging and manipulating files over a tcp computer network. An ftp client may connect to an ftp server to manipulate files on that server., udp- user datagram protocol with udp, computer applications can send messages.

    2.a router has firmware, not an os. This means you can log into it and give it instructions. You can set-up new options. You can set-up routing tables, dmz's, you have qos, you can open and close ports. Do port forwarding / trigger ports.a switch on the other hand has no firmware. So you have pretty much none of the above mentioned stuff. Its just a basic piece of hardware that allows you to send data from one computer to the next.

    3.dora process contain 1st three packets(discover,offer,request)are broadcast and last aknowledge packet is unicast.

    4.the kerberos protocol relies heavily on an authentication technique that makes use of shared secrets. The basic concept is quite simple: if a secret is known by only two people, either person can verify the identity of the other by confirming that the other person knows the secret. For example, let's suppose that alice often sends messages to bob and that bob needs to be sure that a message from alice really has come from alice before he acts on its information. They decide to solve their problem by selecting a password, and they agree not to share this secret with anyone else. If alice's messages can somehow demonstrate that the sender knows the password, bob knows that the sender is alice. The only question for alice and bob to resolve is how alice can show that she knows the password. She might simply include it somewhere in her messages, perhaps in a signature block at the end — alice, our$ecret . This would be simple and efficient and might even work if alice and bob can be sure that no one else is reading their mail. Unfortunately, that is not the case. Their messages pass over a network used by people like carol, who has a network analyzer and a hobby of scanning traffic in hope that one day she might spot a password. So it is out of the question for alice to prove that she knows the secret simply by saying it. To keep the password secret, she must show that she knows it without revealing it. The kerberos protocol solves this problem with secret key cryptography . Rather than sharing a password, communication partners share a cryptographic key. They use knowledge of this key to verify one another's identity. For this method of authentication to work, the shared key must be symmetric — a single key must be capable of both encryption and decryption. One party proves knowledge of the key by encrypting a piece of information, the other by decrypting it.

    Last edited by get_pawan; 03-16-2009 at 11:37 AM. Reason: making it readable

  3. #63
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    Re: Networking Questions

    1. Which routing protocol used tcp and udp?
    All the routing protocol.
    2. Difference between ripv1 and rip v2?
    Ripv1 is a classful routing protocol, Ripv2 is a classless routing protocol.
    Ripv1 does not send subnet mask information in itís update but ripv2 it will send the subnet mask in update ,
    Ripv1 does not support authentication but Ripv2 it will support authentication .

    3. Difference between classless and classfull?
    Classless it will support Ripv1 and classful Ripv2,
    Classless it will support IGRP and Classful EIGRP ,
    Classless it will support EGP and classful OSPF,
    Classles support BGP3 and classful IS-IS and BGP4.

    4. What is routed and routing protocol?
    5. Multicast address of ripv2,eigrp,ospf?
    6. What is the best subnet mask for point to point connectivity?
    7. What is as no?
    8. Which one protocol does a fast convergence at the time of route failure and give reason (eigrp and ospf)?
    9. What is fessible distance and advertisement distance?
    10. What is the method to find the fd value?
    11. What is the concept used in the selection of fessible successor and what is it?
    12. What is active and passive route?
    13. What is the ad value of the following
    eigrp external route,eigrp summary route,ospf, bgp internal and external
    14.can we stop the rip 30 min update time with any metods ?
    15 what is split horizon?
    16 What is the difference between switch & router?
    17 What is FTP & UDP?
    FTP is file transfer protocol. ftp is a application that works in application
    layer of osi model.
    one good reason to use ftp is to download files. ftp is much fater than
    standard http downloads.
    UDP is nothing but user datagram protocol this protocol works at
    transport layer of osi model.
    udp is un reliable ,connectionless datagram protocol " unreliable" merely
    means that the protocol has no technique for verifying that the data
    reached the other end of network correctly


  4. #64
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    Re: Networking Questions

    A routed protocol that can be routed by a router, router must be able to interpret the logical inter network as specified by that routed protocol.
    A routing protocol that accomplishes routing through the implementation of a specific routing protocol.


  5. #65
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Multicast address of Ripv2 is 224.0.0.9,
    Multicast address of Eigrp is 224.0.0.10,
    Multicast address of Ospf is 224.0.0.6.


  6. #66
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    Re: Networking Questions

    1. (i) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is the standard mechanism provided by the TCP/IP protocol suite for copying a file from one host to another
    (ii) UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is one of the available standards that is offered for process-to- process communication within the transport layer,
    also note: UDP is prefered for FTP where large amounts of data is sent. This is because UDP is a best-effort protocol (unreliable and connectionless).

    2. When compared to a Switch, Routers are sophisticated devices. Switches are concerened with transmitting and handling of Frames whereas the Router is more concerened with
    the routing of packets to other networks until it reach its final destsination.

    3. "DORA" (Discover, Offer,Request and Acknowledgement) is the process of assigning IP addresses by the DHCP server
    and here are the steps implemented in brief:

    i) Client makes a UDP Broadcast to the server about the DHCP discovery.

    ii) DHCP offers to the client.

    iii) In response to the offer Client requests the server.

    iv)Server responds all the Ip Add/mask/gty/dns/wins info along with the acknowledgement packet.


    4. Kerberos is a network authentication protocol which utilizes symmetric cryptography to provide authentication for client-server applications.

    This authentication is called secure because it:

    *Does not occur in plaintext
    *Does not rely on authentication by the host operating system
    *Does not base trust on IP addresses
    *Does not require physical security of the network hosts


  7. #67
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    Re: Networking Questions

    FTP :- ftp is file transfer protocol that help transfer any data source to destionation. and it work on transport layer on port no. 21.it means by useing ftp we can download or upload data on internet.
    UDP :- UDP means user datagram protocol that help send data other end. it is connectionless protocol, not verify us that data revd other end yes or no.
    Switch & Router :- switch is the multiport networking devices that enable connect more computers in local network and it is full duplex mode that means at a time more computer send and recvd data.
    Router is networking device that help we connect to internet. it help us unothorised sites. and filter data for sending source to destination.


  8. #68
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    Re: Networking Questions

    how can access another pc by using remote desktop


  9. #69
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Hi,

    U need to install 'Remote Desktop Control' Software on Client and server Systems.

    After that u can access Pc remotely..

    Regards,
    Riju.


  10. #70
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    Thumbs down Re: Networking Questions

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  11. #71
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Quote Originally Posted by patra_wipro View Post
    what is ipsec vpn ?
    what is ad ?
    what is load balance over mpls ?
    how do u creat tunnel ?
    what is eps and AH ?
    explain bet distace vector and link state protocol ?
    what is adjancency?
    what is LSA ?
    diff bet OSPF and EIGRP ?
    define the stubby area configuration and nssa ?
    what is procedure to break the admin password for cisco and juniper and nortel device ?
    what is frame-relay?


  12. #72
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    Re: Networking Questions

    frame relay is a packet switching technology . it works at a data link layer


  13. #73
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Quote Originally Posted by mesharat View Post
    Hey... friends please answer this....

    What is the differnce between A "Switch" and a "Hub"...

    both can be used in LAN i think...
    Is there any speed issue is concerning with these two when we talk about Data transfer....?

    Please explain....
    switch is a layer 2 device .it supports full-duplex but hub doesn't ok


  14. #74
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Quote Originally Posted by simon.zhang View Post
    Normally, networking is means connect the difference network into a big one. difference network is refer to the LAN in difference part of the branch of a big company, etc.

    switch and router is two difference type device, switch is used for layer 2 switch mainly, but right now, switch can work as a router in layer 3 mode, but the mainly difference is performance. switch's layer 2 works better than router.

    router work's in layer 3, and only have limited layer 2 funtions, it's used for routing, and have much high performance in routing than switch.
    router is a layer 3 device,which is mainly used for internetworking,it is used to interconnect two different networks,it also do packet switching and filtering,it does not broadcasts that is it limits the broadcast domain,it basically routes the packet to its destination if it is configured with the corresponding source and destination addresses otherwise it drops the packet.


  15. #75
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    Re: Networking Questions

    ques: if the LAN is connected and configured correctly then what is the reason if the computer is not able to access the internet?


  16. #76
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Switch is a layer 2 device , works with mac address , faster than router , broadcasts the packets with in the network.when a switch is connected to a lan it broadcasts the packets to all the systems intially and learns the mac address of the pcs from their response builds up the mac address table.

    So when a packet has to sent again to a particular pc say pc1,it wont broadcast to all the systems just it ll unicast ie, send the packet directly to the pc1.

    Router is a layer 3 device capable of broadcasting packets out of a particular network as it has routing table where it stores the MAC and IP address of all the devices connect in the network.Using a router we can wave a path for packets for a network, get it filtered using access list etc....


  17. #77
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    Re: Networking Questions

    LSA details in OSPF


  18. #78
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    Re: Networking Questions

    how can you suggest me ,if i am learning sun solaris administrator what will be in future


  19. #79
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    Re: Networking Questions

    Hi FTP=File Transfer Protocall


  20. #80
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    Re: Networking Questions

    my self is jitendra kumar sinha and i am trying to provide the answer
    1 what is ipsec vpn ans-vpn is explained as virtual private network.that is it is communication between two trusted n/w (site to site) and one trusted and one untrusted n/w now a vpn is created by two way 1 ipsec 2 ssl you are asking about ipsec vpnn in the ipsec vpn when there is comuncation between two diffrent vpn then through ip sec it provides securty of transmission of sective trafic over n/w such as internet ip sec provide following network security serveis
    1 data confidentilay
    2 data intergety
    3 data orgin authatication
    4 anti reply

    2 what is ad
    ad value is truthwitiness of routing inforfation which are sharening the informations
    what is load balance over mpls
    multi-protocol label switching (mpls) defines a mechanism for packet forwarding in network routers. It was originally developed to provide faster packet forwarding than traditional ip routing, although improvements in router hardware have reduced the importance of speed in packet fowarding. However, the flexibility of mpls has led to it becoming the default way for modern networks to achieve quality of service (qos), next generation vpn services, and optical signaling. Traditional ip networks are connectionless: when a packet is received, the router determines the next hop using the destination ip address on the packet alongside information from its own forwarding table. The router's forwarding tables contain information on the network topology. They use an ip routing protocol, such as ospf, is-is, bgp, rip or static configuration, to keep their information synchronized with changes in the network. Mpls also uses ip addresses, either v4 or v6, to identify end points and intermediate switches and routers. This makes mpls networks ip-compatible and easily integrated with traditional ip networks. However, unlike traditional ip, mpls flows are connection-oriented and packets are routed along pre-configured label switched paths (lsps).
    How do u creat tunnel comand for enabling tunnel
    pix(config)# ip pool local pool1 10.192.12.100-10.1.192.12.255
    #vpngroup mypool address-pool pool1
    # vpngroup mypool dnsserver x.x.x.x
    # vpdngroup mypool split tunnel 100
    #vpdn group mypooll wind-server x.x.x.x x.x.x.x
    this is the processes to create the tunnel over pix what is eps and ah ah called authentication header.
    ah-ah is a protocol that provides authentication. Of either all or part of the contents of a datagram. Through the addition of a header that is calculated, based on the values in the datagram.

    Eps-is that eps or esp i know about esp not about eps

    explain bet distace vector and link state protocol
    the main difference distance vector and link state routing protocol is that in distance vector routing protocol whole routing table is forwarded to whole n/w where as in the link state protocol updated is always forwarded to it concern neighbor router this is called link state

    adjacency a relationship between two network devices, e.g. Routers, which are connected by one media segment so that a packet sent by one can reach the other without going through another network device. The concept of adjacency is important in the exchange of routing information.


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